The Basics of Accounting


Accounting is the systematic recording of financial transactions. The basic concepts in accounting include the flow of money, the balance sheet, and the chart of accounts. The latter is used to determine the costs of operations and set the budget. This article will cover some of these concepts and their applications. Hopefully, Perks will help you better understand the principles of accounting.

Accounts receivable

Accounts receivable, or simply AR, is the monetary claim a business holds for goods and services provided to customers, but have not yet been paid for. It represents money that the business is due and has not yet received, and it is a legal enforceable claim that can be collected if the customer fails to pay. Accounts receivable are held by a business for goods and services that have been ordered but not yet paid for.

Accounts receivable can be recorded on a cash basis or accrual basis. If your company uses accrual accounting, accounts receivable are recorded as soon as an invoice is sent, regardless of when a client pays. Both methods are allowed by the IRS, but it is important to adhere to the accounting method that the business chooses.

Accounts receivable master

When establishing a new account receivable master, there are a few steps you must follow. First, enter the customer’s number and information. You may then select a green plus sign and enter additional information. The next time you add a customer, you may click on the customer number and make edits.

Your accounts receivable master should reflect your customer’s credit worthiness and payment history. This includes their net worth, financial statements, and other credit score information. The quality of your customer data will impact how effectively you manage your accounts receivable. In other words, your master data should be consistent.

A/R masters can be divided into two main files. The first file is called the AR-BATCH file. It stores the daily posting transactions. It is used to produce the A/R batch report. The other file is called the AR-MASTER file. This file stores the information relating invoices to customer accounts. It is also used to generate accounts receivable reports.


Accounting for liabilities is an essential step in determining a business’s financial position. Liabilities are the debts that a company has to other parties. These debts can be service-based or financial in nature. They are an integral part of a business’s operations, and can help finance large expansions or regular business expenses.

Every organisation incurs some type of liability every day. This may be in the form of purchasing goods on credit or borrowing money from others. Although liabilities are inevitable, they can be difficult to handle. The resource guide below explores how to properly handle liabilities. This chapter also includes sections devoted to common terminology and obscure phrases.

Contingent liabilities represent a possible future obligation based on unknown circumstances. These liabilities are often represented by lawsuits, product warranties, and recalls. In some cases, the company may not be able to fulfill its obligation for any reason.

Indirect transactions

The indirect method is easier to apply to accounting calculations than the direct method, and it is often the preferred method among businesses. However, if you want to have a clear picture of your cash flow, the direct method is a better choice. This method is more accurate than the indirect method because it allows you to segregate cash transactions from non-cash ones.

The direct method involves recording all cash receipts and disbursements. The accrual method, on the other hand, records business activities on the income statement and balance sheet. For example, if a company sells a widget for $500, the sale would result in a debit in accounts receivable and a credit to sales revenue. This is then displayed on the balance sheet.

Tax accounting

Tax accounting is the process of preparing and analyzing tax returns for a business. It also involves the preparation of tax payments. For example, company XYZ may use one accounting method when reporting its net income to investors, but the IRS requires a different method for tax accounting. This can result in different net income numbers when filing with the IRS and the SEC.

Tax accounting is a complex subject and there are many evolving regulations. Companies are under increased regulatory scrutiny about their account balances and income tax disclosures. In a complex business environment, the need for transparency and higher tax reporting standards is greater than ever. Furthermore, the upcoming COVID-19 support packages will bring increased attention to tax affairs.